On May 8, 2018 the US withdrew from a nuclear accord with Iran. While other signatories to the deal stuck by it, the US decision triggered sanctions which, due to the importance of the dollar in world trade, effectively shut Iran off from global business networks.
The main consequences of these sanctions have been to squeeze Iran's main export, oil, and force down the value of its currency. In addition, foreign businesses have had to back out of investments.
Such is the impact of the sanctions that Iranian leaders have equated them to war and their impact has been felt across the country. Below are some examples of how everyday Iranians have experienced the squeeze.
During 2018, the price of chicken rose by almost 80 percent. In response, the government started distributing poultry meat at subsidised prices.
Tomato paste shortage
In the same period, a shortage of tomatoes and metal to produce cans resulted in a doubling of the price of tomato paste. Exports of tomatoes were banned and companies started selling paste in glass jars.
Nut sales dropped
During Nowruz, the Iranian new year, locals stock up on large quantities of nuts. However with prices up by between 50% to 100% since the previous year, many families cut back.
Cars prices hit
DIfficulties sourcing raw materials and components, together with the withdrawal of foreign businesses included Peugeot pushed up the prices of cars, both domestic- and foreign-made. Most models are at least twice as expensive now as they were before the re-imposition of sanctions.
House prices rise
The general inflation caused by the falling Rial has caused sharp inflation in property prices. Land, house and apartments have all been affected, costing up to five times more than a year and a half ago.
As a result of a shortage of raw materials, plastic bottles are becoming increasingly rare, often replaced by glass.
National ID Cards
Iranians are having to wait months to get new smart national ID cards. Designed to allow the digitisation of public services, the cards were originally manufactured abroad. However, the government has recently announced that production with begin within Iran to address problems sourcing the documents.