The cathedral was severely damaged in a devastating fire in April.
"The relevant authorities, including the diocese... neglected to assist residents, visitors and workers, allowing them to be exposed to the toxic fallout," the NGO said in its lawsuit.
French authorities have no grounds to believe that the fire that wrecked Paris' Notre-Dame Cathedral in April was the result of criminal activity, although they are looking into the possibility of negligence, said the Paris prosecutor's office.
Two months after a devastating fire destroyed the cathedral's spire and roof, the Archbishop of Paris, Michel Aupetit, held mass for the anniversary of the cathedral's dedication as a place of prayer.
The roof renovation company repairing Notre Dame's roof confirmed to Euronews their workers smoked on top of the roof but denied it being at the origin of the fire that ravaged the gothic monument a week ago.
Three churches destroyed by fires in the United States have seen a spike in donations following the flooding of funds to Notre-Dame Cathedral.
Firefighters who battled the Notre-Dame blaze were honoured at the Elysee Palace on Thursday (April 18).
Global landmarks have been illuminated in the French tricolour in solidarity with the Notre Dame after a devastating fire ripped through the Paris cathedral on Monday
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Some French political parties have suspended their European election campaigns after the fire that ravaged the iconic Notre Dame cathedral on Monday night.