LONDON — The saga of the Aquarius rescue ship that was stranded at sea for 10 days after repeatedly being refused permission to dock illustrates the hardening of views on migration in Europe.Days after taking power, Italy's new populist government last month marked out its red lines to the European Union by closing its ports to the vessel, which was carrying 630 migrants who had been picked up off Libya's coast.Malta followed suit, arguing that it had nothing to do with the rescue mission and had no legal obligation to take the migrants. The Aquarius was eventually welcomed by Spain.
Italian Interior Minister Matteo Salvini said the country was saying "no to the business of clandestine immigration."Authorities in Rome have since barred several other similar rescue ships carrying migrants from disembarking on Italian soil.The policy change raises questions about how rescue ships manned by volunteers who have traditionally been at the forefront of saving lives will be able to continue their work. Around 27,000 migrants have died while trying to reach Europe by crossing the Mediterranean Sea since 1993.
Salvini has regularly accused rescue vessels of complicity with smugglers — who often pack migrants into overcrowded and rickety boats. He also once declared that crews of humanitarian rescue ships "should be arrested" and their vessels "sunk.""The Aquarius made visible something that has been happening for a few months, which is the attempt to criminalize the role of NGOs in search and rescue operations," said Nando Sigona, a researcher in migration at the University of Birmingham, using a British acronym for non-governmental organizations.Last month was the deadliest in the past four years in the central Mediterranean route between North Africa and Italy, with some 563 people dead or missing, according to the International Organization for Migration (IOM). There have been more than 250 additional fatalities on this route this month.But last week, a Spanish aid group accused Libya's coast guardof abandoning a woman and toddler to their deaths after they intercepted a boat carrying 160 people 90 nautical miles off the Libyan coast.Alina Krobok deputy spokesperson for Sea-Watch, a non-profit group which conducts search-and-rescue operations from Malta, said it was becoming increasingly difficult for humanitarian organizations to save migrants from drowning in the Mediterranean Sea.