The statement of 14 July 2015 ended 12 years of tension between the Islamic Republic of Iran and the international community. However, for its final implementation, the agreement requires a strong political will and mutual.
The political balance inside Iran and the United States seems conducive to the promised reforms: “moderate” Iranian and US Democrats have repeatedly expressed their will to resolve this issue through diplomatic channels, without applying threats.
But this balance may change during the coming years. Immediately after the press conference by Mohammad-Javad Zarif and Federica Mogherini the challenge by conservative extremists in Iran and Republicans in the United States began. Both sides consider the Vienna Declaration and programme to be a “bad deal” that does not guarantee their respective national interests or peace and security in the world.
A day after the deal announced in Vienna, Chief Justice of Iran, Sadeq Larijani one of the most close key figures to the Supreme Leader praised the negotiators team and President. “This issue to be continued and we hope the next steps to be taken with solidity,” he said.
The implementation of the Vienna agreement, despite all the difficulties encountered, opens a new chapter in the history of relations between Iran and the international community. In the chaotic situation in the Middle East, the Islamic Republic will try to avoid “less necessary” problems with rivals on the international stage to play a less encombered role at regional level.
Behnam Masoumi, euronews Persian service
The first official Saudi reaction to the agreement between the major powers and Tehran was supportive of an agreement to stop Tehran gaining nuclear weapons but emphasised the importance of a strict inspections regime and the ability to reimpose sanctions.
The comments were attributed to “an official source.
The statement also stressed that sanctions relating to terrorism and violation of international arms treaties would remain intact.
US president Barack Obama telephoned King Salman of Saudi Arabia on Tuesday to discuss the newly completed agreement, the White House said. Saudi Arabia and its allies in the Gulf are looking forward to setting up a nuclear power network with the support of Russia.
The Iran deal will not change the realtity of an arms race in the region and a cold war between Iran and other states which are scared by Tehran’s influence.
Riad Muasses, head of euronews Arabic service
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Cairo says it is keen for the nuclear deal to put an end to the arms race in the region and help to eliminate weapons of mass destruction, including nuclear weapons, in the Middle East.
In a short statement issued on its official Facebook page on Tuesday July 14th at 6pm, the foreign ministry said it “hopes the deal would prevent an arms race in the Middle East, clear it from any weapons of mass destruction, including nuclear weapons, and lead to peace and stability in the region.”
The ministry also added that it is waiting to receive the full text of the deal and its terms in order to study it thoroughly.
Egypt and Iran have not had full diplomatic ties since 1979 when Iran’s Islamic revolution took place and Cairo signed a peace deal with Israel.
Mohammed Shaikhibrahim, euronews Cairo correspondent
Dubai and the UAE
The historic deal between world powers and Iran will have far-reaching implications for the export and re-export activities of the UAE, the traditional trading partner of the sanctions-hit country.
Iran is a major trading partner of the UAE with non-oil export trade to Iran valued at 10.450 billion euros (42.2 billion aed) in 2014.
But under the sanctions UAE-Iran exports, excluding oil dropped from 16% per cent of total exports in 2011 to 11% per cent in 2014.
Analysts predict the deal could see a 20 per cent increase in bilateral trade and transform the Middle East business environment.
Hussain Asrar Haghighi, executive V-P of the Iranian Business Council in Dubai told euronews: “the Iranian Business Council in Dubai expects big growth in the trading of spare parts and food products. Iran doesn’t have the capacity that the UAE has. Iran needs the UAE because of the infrastructure.
The official Abu Dhabi National Press Agency reported that UAE president Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan sent a telegram of congratulations to Iranian leader Hassan Rohani.
It quoted an ‘official source’ saying: “Iran could play a (significant) role in the region if it revises its policy and stops interfering in the internal affairs of countries like Iraq, Syria, Lebanon and Yemen. (…) Accompanying (efforts) would be for Iran to demonstrate a genuine desire to help extinguish fires devouring the region.”
Sultan Sooud Al Qassemi is a columnist and Twitter commentator on Arab affairs.
Rita del Prete, euronews correspondent, Dubai
The ink hadn’t even dried under the Vienna agreement, when, in Washington, the Republican attack machine went into overdrive. “Irresponsible” and “dangerous” were among the more moderate adjectives used by critics of the Iran deal.
On the 2016 presidential campaign trail, all Republican candidates slammed the deal, including libertarian Senator Rand Paul who is in favor of reaching out to Iran, though.
“Some of my colleagues had their press releases ready before the final text of the agreement was ready”, Steve Israel said, Democratic congressman and one of his party’s skeptics, as he has to take into account his New York constituents.
The US Congress now has 60 days to review the Iran nuclear agreement and could have an up-or-down vote in September with partisan emotions already running high.
Should Congress reject the deal, President Barack Obama can nullify that resolution with his veto pen. Lawmakers would then need to mobilize a two-third majority to override the presidential veto.
This seems unrealistic, as it would amount to an open rebellion of the Democratic Party against its leader.
Unrealistic, but not totally impossible, as the New York Times points out. Selling the deal to Congress, including Democratic doubters, “may prove almost as difficult as reaching agreement with Iran.”
Already on Tuesday, top administration officials, including Obama, started fanning out to convince Democrats in Congress that the negotiated agreement is by far the best available option.
Obama even called Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu on the phone to try to sell the deal’s merits – apparently without success. Netanyahu qualified the Vienna breakthrough as “one of the darkest days in the history of the world.”
Stefan Grobe, euronews Washington correspondent
Turkey welcomed the deal between Iran and P5+1 and said it will directly affect Turkey in many ways.
Foreign Minister Mevlüt Çavuşoğlu underlined the fact that the lifting of the embargo on Iran will have positive impact on the economy of the whole region. In a written statement the Turkish Foreign Ministry also said “The full implementation of this agreement without interruption on the basis of mutual trust is essential for the peace, security and stability of the region.”
Deputy Prime Minister Bülent Arınç emphasized that the deal will not only work for the good of the USA and Iran but for the whole world.
He said “Turkey is actually one of the architects of this deal. I hope nobody denies that and thanks Turkey too. Because Turkey sided with the right of Iranian people to have nuclear energy for peaceful purposes, and paid a price for this support. We are all happy with the deal and hope that Iran does not forget Turkey’s support.”
Turkey supports Iran’s peaceful nuclear energy programme and tried to mediate between Tehran and P5+1 in the past. On May 17, 2010, with the support of Brazil and Turkey, Iran and world powers signed a nuclear fuel swap deal.
As a neighbour of Iran, Turkey hopes to recover trade relations with Iran which have been badly affected by the sanctions. Turkey had to reduce its energy dependency on Iran and find new suppliers.
Turkish intellectuals have been divided on the impact of the deal. Some said the deal will improve the profile of Iran in the eyes of Washington and that will diminish the position of Turkey. Proffesor Bülent Aras, former aide of Prime Minister Ahmet Davutoğlu said on his Twitter account that Turkey should review its foreign policy and play a faciliating role between Iran and Saudi Arabia, as the region slips into a regional Cold War.
Policy-makers in Israel, the only country in the region suspected of owning nuclear weapons, were far from happy about the Iran deal. “Iran is going to receive a sure path to nuclear weapons. Many of the restrictions that were supposed to prevent it from getting there will be lifted,” Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu said. “Iran will get a jackpot, a cash bonanza of hundreds of billions of dollars, which will enable it to continue to pursue its aggression and terror in the region and in the world. This is a bad mistake of historic proportions.”
Other observers on the right echoed the PM’s fear and anger.
There were more welcoming voices in the country: left-leaning newspaper Haaretz wrote “Israel has rarely seemed lonelier in the international arena, or more despondent,” being the only country in the world so far to utterly reject the nuclear deal
An editorial from the newspaper urged Israel to “ give a fair chance to Iran and the world powers to inaugurate a new path “
European diplomats were among the most gushing in welcoming the deal. The EU foreign policy chief Federica Mogherini, who mediated the talks, described it as ‘A sign of hope for the entire world.’ Politicians from across the spectrum hailed the deals as “historic”
Martin Schulz, president of the European parliament
Frans Timmermans, first vice president of the European Commission
Guy Verhofstadt, leader of the Alliance of Liberal and Democrats for Europe group in the European parliament