Hundreds of people could be seen running alongside a U.S. Air Force transport plane before takeoff, in a widely shared video that captured the sense of desperation.
A few held onto the plane and according to reports at least three men fell to their death minutes after takeoff.
In a video uploaded by the Afghan Asvaka news agency, obscure objects can be seen falling from the military plane.
"Locals collected the bodies of three men clinging to the wheels of the plane that took off from Kabul airport, they then fell to the ground near the Khairkahana area of Kabul," the agency reported.
Other videos circulating on social media showed hundreds of people running across the tarmac as U.S. troops fired warning shots in the air.
The Pentagon declined to comment on the chaos at the airport.
Meanwhile, flights for civilians are suspended at the airport until further notice, according to Afghanistan’s Civil Aviation Authority.