Notable absentees were Harry and Meghan, who are spending Christmas in Canada, and Prince Philip, 98, who left hospital on Christmas Eve.
Prince Andrew was seen in public for the first time since an interview about his links with billionaire sex offender Jeffrey Epstein.
He was seen with Prince Charles as the royal family gathered for the traditional Christmas morning church service at their Sandringham estate in Norfolk.
Queen Elizabeth II — who will use her annual Christmas Day speech to say 2019 was “quite bumpy” — was without her husband Prince Philip, 98, who left a London hospital on Tuesday.
Philip had been treated for what the royal family said was a "precautionary measure" and spent four days at King Edward's VII Hospital.
The Duke and Duchess of Cambridge brought two of their children, Prince George and Princess Charlotte, to the annual church gathering for the first time.
Andrew stepped back from royal duties amid the backlash from a BBC interview on his friendship with Epstein, who took his life in August while awaiting trial on sex-trafficking charges.
The Duke and Duchess of Sussex were notable absentees having decided to spend Christmas in Canada.
Both have spoken out this year about the media pressure surrounding their roles as members of the royal family.