Votes are being counted following regional elections across Russia.
Around 59 million people are eligible to vote and the poll is seen as a precursor to the 2016 State Duma ballot followed by presidential elections in 2018.
The poll will provide United Russia, the party of President Vladimir Putin, with an overwhelming victory.
The Democratic Coalition, an umbrella organisation for the parties of Alexei Navalny and murdered politician Boris Nemtsov, is only running in the Kostroma region.
The opposition has been barred from standing elsewhere.
Putin’s opponents claim they have been prevented from standing by technicalities in a politically motivated bid to stop them from contesting.
Navalny said he expects “major falsifications” in the vote.