Thousands of air travellers are stranded in Germany after strikes grounded more than 800 flights at Lufthansa alone.
Major hub Frankfurt was at a near-standstill along with Munich, Cologne and Bremen.
The industrial action by ground staff and other public sector workers also affected nurseries, rubbish collection services and swimming pools in several German states.
The industrial action in Germany adds to the travel gloom in Europe as disputes elsewhere build up.
Air France says a quarter of its flights were cancelled on Tuesday, in the latest strike there, affecting transit and connecting flights.