French President Emmanuel Macron has led sombre tribute to the 17 victims of attacks in Paris three years ago.
During a three-day killing spree in January 2015, gunmen killed reporters and illustrators at the satirical weekly Charlie Hebdo.
Police officers also perished in the attacks, as well as customers at a Jewish supermarket in the French capital.
Sunday's commemoration started at the former premises of Charlie Hebdo. Two brothers armed with assault rifles shot and killed 11, including most of the notoriously irreverent publication's cartoonists and writers.
The names of the victims were read out. Wreaths were laid in front of the office building, including one by Macron and Paris Mayor, Anne Hidalgo.
Homage was then paid at the nearby site where a police officer was shot dead at point-blank range by one of the gunmen.
A further tribute was also held at the kosher supermarket where a third gunman killed four people.
Who were the attackers?
Two brothers, Said and Cherif Kouachi, carried out the Charlie Hebdo attack. They died in a police assault on a factory premises north of Paris two days later.
Amedy Coulibaly, who attacked the Jewish supermarket, also shot a female police officer dead in a separate incident. Coulibaly was also killed in a police operation.