The number of terrorist attacks across Western Europe with links to the so-called Islamic State group are on the rise.
The UK, France and Belgium appear to be the countries most targeted by IS detachments or solo operatives.
All three are actively involved in the anti-Daesh coalition in both Syria and Iraq.
The US is by far and away the largest contributor, though France is second in terms of military strikes and third in the number of resources with naval, air and ground forces deployed.
Britain is also active with special forces in situ, Belgium contributes shipping and aircraft, but as the symbolic capital of Europe Brussels is vulnerable.
Since September 2014 Daesh has been under the coalition kosh the Caliphate, straddling Iraq and Syria has been eroded
and now the end game is in sight with Mosul close to capitulation and Raqqa under assault.
The jihadists are exporting their doctrine and violence across Europe to sow division and attack liberal values and behaviour
Many foreign fighters have fled the coalition assaults and returned to their countries of origin to continue the fight at home.
The International Institute for the Study of Radicalisation estimates around 700 French, 500 British and 250 Belgians are radicalised and ready to wage jihad.
In the hands of murderers everyday objects become killing machines almost impossible for the security services to predict and defend against. The targets tend to be soft and symbolic the Champs Elysees, Borough Market, Westminster Bridge and transport hubs.
The idea to destablise and divide,sow hatred, distrust and retaliation.