Pro-Russian protesters rallied in Germany over the discrimination they say they have suffered since Moscow's invasion of Ukraine.
Frankfurt, Hanover and Stuttgart all saw demonstrations on Sunday.
"We organised this protest because many of us Russian speakers, Russians, have been discriminated against and harassed because of our language culture," said Eddy, a protester in Frankfurt.
"That's why we gathered here, to show that we don't tolerate this. We have to separate the current political situation from the human situation."
Another protester, Ozan Yilmaz, called for an end to the war.
"I am here today because I am for peace," said Yilmaz. "Children have been beaten up in school because they speak Russian, and that's not right."
Meanwhile, in Hanover, around 350 vehicles took part in a pro-Russian motorcade.
Around 3,500 pro-Ukrainian demonstrators also gathered in the city, police said, and protesters were able to stop the vehicles shortly after they started.
Police, including mounted officers, were brought in to separate the two groups and escort the motorcade, which continued along a different route.
There were verbal clashes between the two camps.
Germany is home to 1.2 million people of Russian origin and 325,000 from Ukraine.