The Italian government has won the confidence vote but not the confidence of all the senators.
87 year-old Senator for Life Liliana Segre warned against laws which would target nomadic people.
"I refuse to think that today our democratic civilization could be dirtied by special laws against nomadic people," she said.
"If it happens, I will oppose it with all the energy I have left in me."
Segre, who is an Auschwitz survivor, received a standing ovation for her speech in which she also reminded legislators that Italian racial persecution in 1938 paved the way for the Holocaust.
Among the policies of the Conte government is the proposal to shut down nomadic camps of the Roma people in Italy.
The anti-immigrant League Party holds power in the new government with the Five Star Movement and aims to send half a million illegal immigrants back to their countries of origin.
Segre reminded the government that the expulsion of the Jewish minority in Italy from schools and jobs paved the way for the Italian Shoah of 1943-1945.