1914: November 2
In the lead up to World War I the Ottoman Empire had lost a considerable amount of territory in both the Balkans and Libya. Seeking to establish some key allies and motivated by the possibility of reclaiming old territories or gaining new ones, the Ottoman Empire eventually entered the war on the side of the Central Powers.
Although Germany and the Ottoman Empire had signed an alliance in August, the Ottomans didn’t become involved in the war until October 31 when, assisted by two German ships, they attacked Russian ports in the Black sea. In response Russia declared war on the Empire on November 2. Two weeks later the Ottoman Sultan Mehmed V issued a holy commandment calling for Muslims around the world to rise up and defend the empire.