The move comes after the White House announced the expulsion of 10 Russian diplomats over a massive cyberattack and election interference.
Poland expelled on Thursday three Russian diplomats accused of "hostile actions," the Polish Foreign Ministry said.
The move comes after the US expelled 10 Russian diplomats earlier on Thursday and imposed sanctions against dozens of companies and people.
Washington says the measures are retaliation for alleged Kremlin interference in last year's presidential election and a massive cyber attack on federal agencies known as SolarWinds.
Expressing its "full solidarity" with Washington, the Polish Foreign Ministry said "decisions made jointly with allies" were "the most appropriate response to the hostile actions of the Russian Federation."
The European Union also showed its support to its American ally earlier on Thursday in a statement released by the bloc's foreign policy chief Josep Borrell.
Moscow said it would expel three Polish diplomats in a tit-for-tat response to Warsaw's move, Interfax news agency reported.
After the US sanctions were announced, Russian Foreign Ministry spokeswoman Maria Zakharova warned that “such aggressive behaviour will undoubtedly trigger a resolute retaliation.”
“Washington should realise that it will have to pay a price for the degradation of the bilateral ties,” Zakharova said, adding that “the responsibility for that will fully lie with the United States.”
Foreign policy experts say the US sanctions signal a harder line of the Biden administration against Russian President Vladimir Putin.
They come just days after Biden asked his Russian counterpart to join him for a presidential summit on Russia's tensions with Ukraine.