Thousands of Madrilenians gathered for Black Friday evening shopping as the city's Christmas lights were switched on. Madrid's Plaza Mayor has become a large Christmas market full of more than 100 colourful stalls where locals and tourists can find a variety of gifts and decorations.
These festive scenes contrast with the closure of Christmas markets in northern Europe. Authorities in Germany, battling rising COVID-19 infection rates, have had to close iconic festive markets in Nuremberg and Dresden; however Frankfurt's market has been saved – for the time being.
There were mixed feelings among those out enjoying the atmosphere in the Spanish capital.