Europe has reached another coronavirus milestone with more than 10 million confirmed cases since the start of the pandemic, according to the World Health Organization (WHO) director in Europe. There have been 1.5 million in the past week alone.
Sweden, Italy and Spain are all recording highs of daily infections with Belgium set to introduce tougher restrictions on movement.
And confirmed coronavirus infections in Slovakia continue to soar as the country gets ready for nationwide testing.
In an attempt to halt the second wave of the pandemic, a new wave of restrictions has swept across Europe.
France is once again in national lockdown for at least a month to try to put the brakes on soaring coronavirus cases.
Bars, restaurants and leisure facilities in neighbouring Germany will close on November 2 for at least a month although this is a lighter version of the lockdown earlier in the year, with schools and nurseries staying open.
Dr Pasi Penttinen is a principal expert on coronavirus and influenza at the European Centre for Disease in Control, in Stockholm, Sweden.
He says lockdowns are a painful, but necessary measure.
"When major lockdowns were put in place earlier in the year you could see a drop in infection rates within two to three weeks. So while the measures are socially and economically difficult, they do work."
Watch the full interview with Dr Penttinen in the video player, above.