Carles Puigdemont and Oriol Junqueras elected to the European Parliament but it's not clear whether either will ever get there.
Catalan separatists Carles Puigdemont, living in self-imposed exile in Belgium, and Oriol Junqueras - imprisoned in Spain on rebellion charges - have won seats in the European Parliament, according to an exit poll
However, Puigdemont cannot take up his new role without returning to Madrid where he too faces jail.
Overall, the Socialist Party of prime minister Pedro Sanchez were expected to claim 18 of the country's 54 seats. Anti-immigration party Vox won its first ever European Union representation with 4-5 seats, according to the poll.