Millions of voters in the European Union will head to the polls before the end of the year with the ballots in Poland and Netherlands likely to be closely watched around the bloc.
The parliamentary elections in Poland are scheduled for 15 October with the ruling right-wing nationalist Law and Justice (PiS) party in the lead. But the opposition Civic Platform, led by former prime minister and European Council president Donald Tusk, has been climbing in the polls.
PiS is hoping it can secure a third term in power. Its tenure so far has been characterised by conflicts with Brussels over issues ranging from judicial and media independence, women and minorities' rights as well as climate goals.
Dutch voters will meanwhile cast their ballots on 22 November. The anticipated elections were scheduled following the collapse in early July of the coalition government led by Prime Minister Mark Rutte due to a row over migration.
Rutte, nicknamed 'Teflon Mark' for his ability to survive previous political crises and stay in power, has announced his retirement from politics.
His conservative VVD party is polling high but its coalition partners, the centrist Christian Union and socially-liberal D66, are trailing behind the upstart populist farmer protest party BBB and the far-right PVV.
The Labour Party (PvdA) and the Greens are hoping to counter the rise of these two parties by joining forces and rallying behind Frans Timmermans, who is returning to national politics after 10 years as the EU's climate czar.
Other parliamentary elections in the EU will take place in Slovakia (30 September) and Luxembourg (8 October).
A new ballot in Spain could also be scheduled after an election in July held following the collapse of the coalition led by Socialist Prime Minister Pedro Sanchez led to inconclusive results. Neither the opposition People's Party nor Sanchez's Socialists gathered enough votes to govern alone with the results also making it difficult for them to build coalitions.