Another summer heatwave is expected in the coming days with meteorologists saying a heat dome could add to the situation.
Europe faces another heatwave next week as forecasters warn that a 'heat dome' is set to bring near record high temperatures to the continent.
Spain, Portugal and Italy are among the European countries tipped to see extreme heat next week.
In France, temperatures could peak at around 40C in the south of the country, weather authority Météo France has said. At least 19 departments are under weather warnings for hot conditions with that number likely to rise over the weekend.
Forecasters have said it could be the country's most intense heatwave ever. The government held a crisis meeting on Thursday (18 August) to discuss measures to deal with the extreme weather.
A heat dome, which has come from the Sahara, across Algeria and Morocco, sweeping across Europe will intensify already high temperatures. Low levels of rain also bring an increased risk of wildfires.
What is a heat dome?
A heat dome is a weather phenomenon where a ridge of high pressure gets stuck in the atmosphere.
It traps hot ocean air like a lid or cap on a boiling pot. Hot air expands vertically into the atmosphere and high pressure pushes it toward the ground. It has nowhere to escape and compresses trapping even more heat underneath.
Winds are usually able to move high pressure around but with the dome stretching far into the atmosphere, these weather systems become almost stationary.
A heat dome can lead temperatures to soar well above what is normal.
On top of this, the ground begins to warm up, losing moisture and increasing the chance of wildfires. With low rainfall expected across many of the regions the heat dome is expected to cover, experts have warned of an increased risk of blazes breaking out.
Are heatwaves becoming more common?
Since 1950 heatwaves have increased in length and frequency all over the world, as shown in a study published in 2020.
This research, carried out by scientists from UNSW Sydney and UNSW Canberra, found that the Mediterranean has experienced an increase of two and a half heatwave days per decade since 1950. The Amazon rainforest had an extra five and a half in the same period.
The worst increases globally have taken place since 1999.
Heatwaves increase the chance of prolonged droughts and the risk of wildfires. Southern Europe has already seen the impact of severe blazes and a lack of rainfall so far this summer.
There are health costs too. Last year's exceptionally hot and dry summer is estimated to have caused tens of thousands of heat-related deaths in Europe.
The consequences will be even more severe for cities, where the combination of buildings plus pavement plus concrete creates an ‘urban heat island’.
In Europe 75 per cent of the population lives in urban areas, making heatwave mitigation a pressing concern. Creative solutions can be found. - in Portland libraries are being used as cooling centres. But what are the best ways that cities can be heatproofed?
We’ve listed the top three strategies for reducing the effects of heatwaves and added three ways that you can handle the heat. Our personal methods all have an environmental focus.
What can your government do to help with the heat?
A study published in 2019 found that increasing tree cover in cities could dramatically lower temperatures. Whereas surfaces like roads absorb heat, trees cool their surroundings through transpiration: absorbing water through their roots and releasing it into the atmosphere. It was found that for the best effects canopy cover must be 40 per cent.
Barcelona - already famous for its tree cover at 25.2 per cent - has a 20-year master plan to grow that to 30 per cent by 2037. This a wise move as southern Europe is expected to suffer from increasing heatwaves as climate change increasingly takes hold.
Adding vegetation to buildings
Trees aren’t the only plant-based solution on the block with an increased focus on adding vegetation to buildings as a way of cooling them down. Like trees, plants reflect the sun’s rays - a benefit if they are placed over heat-absorbing concrete - and cool the atmosphere through transpiration.
Urban planting schemes are underway in Paris and designs have been pioneered in Italy by architect Stefano Boeri.
While fountains may seem like a luxury they can have amazing cooling effects in urban environments.
Water absorbs and can transport heat (making moving fountains better than stagnant ponds for reducing temperatures), provides drinking water for parched citizens and decreases air temperature through evaporation.
The City of London's adaptation plan includes building more fountains and in Thessaloniki, Greece, Chrimatistiriou Square has a bioclimatic design with water features to provide relief from the sweltering Mediterranean heat.
What can you do to keep cool during a heatwave?
Wear natural fibres
Clothes made from fabric containing microplastics release harmful chemicals into the ocean when washed and can harm marine life.
The good news is that breathable clothing made from natural fibres like cotton and linen can keep you cool and is better for the fish. While far from perfect in terms of production, natural fibres do biodegrade and their weaves absorb sweat and allow air circulation around the body, helping to keep you cool.
Cold peppermint tea
First things first - ditch the coconut water. While this may seem like a natural beverage containing many hydrating electrolytes, coconut farming is deeply damaging to tropical biodiversity.
Switch to the far more ethically farmed peppermint tea. Mint can be grown in many different climates and can even be sourced locally or grown in your back garden. A peppermint teabag in a glass of cold water will cool you down as the natural menthol will stimulate cold receptors in the body.
Create a cross breeze
A more environmentally friendly option than air conditioning is to create a cross breeze using a fan and an open window.
Position the fan across the room from the window and the cooling airflow created will make sure you get a good night's sleep. For really hot nights place a frozen water bottle in front of the fan, and then you can enjoy a cold bottle of water when you wake up in the morning.