Thousands of protesters gathered in Bologna in northern Italy ahead of a regional vote on January 26.
They are part of a "sardines" movement - named for packing many demonstrators into city squares - and were demonstrating against far-right leader Matteo Salvini.
The group was formed by four strangers in the city last November to fight Salvini's anti-immigration message.
Organisers said around 30,000 to 40,000 people turned up but these figures haven't been confirmed by authorities.
Their posters read "Solidarity, Welcome, Respect, Rights, Inclusion, Non-Violence, Anti-Fascism".
On Saturday in Maranello, Salvini held a rally with Lega candidate Lucia Borgonzoni.
Some polls show close margins between Salvini's League party and the current centre-left government whilst others show the divide is wide favouring Salvini.
The former interior minister hopes to bring down the Five-Star Movement after it won the largest vote in national elections two years ago.