In the lead up to the European elections, a surge in populist support has come to the fore on both the far-right and far-left.
Many of the parties within these camps have come up with unconventional — but divisive — ways of producing campaign videos, some of which dive into anti-Islam tropes or outright disinformation.
Vlaams Belang (Flemish Interest) party, a radical right-wing force in Belgium that represents the richest part of the country, in its video targets Belgium's French-speaking minority. It depicts them as freeloaders who make Belgium less competitive, but does so without evidence to back the stereotype.
It also makes unequivocal the party's anti-immigration stance, saying: "We need to stop paying immigration invoices that nobody asked for. The Flemish deserve better!"
The Independent Greeks party's advert depicts a German woman giving orders to a Greek dog called Thanassis. Thanassis could be any pro-European leader in the country, but it's most likely a reference to Prime Minister Alexis Tsipras, who has made some concessions to the EU.
“Thanassis, come here! Bravo Thannassis! Sit Down! Stand up! Roll around! Eat the crumb! Bring it here! Bravo!" the woman says.
A narrator chimes in at the end with: "In this election, don't vote for Thanassis! ... We obey only one voice. The voice of the Greeks! “
In Germany, the far-right Alternative for Deutschland made a video that depicts Brussels as always telling citizens what not to do.
The anti-immigration party that calls climate change "brainwashing", said in its advert: “Don't protect. Don't defend. Don't have doubts. Don't choose! Enough of this! In Brussels, this spot would be OK, so that they could continue with their activities without disturbance."
On the other side of the spectrum, the radical left Dutch SP party also targets Brussels and Frans Timmermans, the Socialist candidate eyeing the top EU job. In its video, he is mocked as Hans Brusselsmans, playing with EU tanks and, at the end, eating up independent member states.
Geert Wilders' far-right and anti-Islam Freedom Party in the Netherlands shared a divisive video depicting asylum seekers and Muslims as people who struggle to pay rent and get services for free. To be clear, there is no evidence that supports Wilders' claim.
A new far-right political force in Hungary is a party known as Our Homeland. The group is a staunch opponent to immigration. In their video, a toy fence blocks jihadists made out of LEGO before a real fence at the Serbian border appears in the frame.