The Court of Arbitration for Sport has dismissed 47 Russian appeals from banned athletes and coaches at the eleventh hour.
Only the IOC's carefully-screened 169 Russian guests will compete in Pyeongchang in South Korea, under an olympic flag.
"Although the Russian Olympic Committee was suspended, the IOC nevertheless chose to offer individual athletes the opportunity to participate in the Winter Games under prescribed conditions - a process that was designed to balance the IOC's interest in the global fight against doping and the interests of individual athletes from Russia," said the CAS's Secretary-General Matthieu Reeb.
Russia's olympic committee is currently suspended after massive doping abuse was uncovered at Russia's 2014 Sochi winter games, where more than 1000 athletes over several sports had their samples "cleaned" for them.
Russia's Deputy Prime Minister Vitaly Mutko was quick to express his "disappointment" at the CAS decision.