Summer transfer spending in Europe’s top five football leagues has so far exceeded approximately €4.8 billion, slightly more than last year, according to data from CIES Football Observatory.
That number is also expected to rise with more deals set to be completed before the European transfer window closes.
The English one closed on Thursday at 18h CEST.
Spending by English-based teams is again the largest of the leagues we studied, but that could change over the coming weeks.
Spanish have spent €1.5 billion so far in this summer transfer window as football giants like Real Madrid and Barcelona seek to reassert themselves on the European stage.
Last year, English sides had a clean sweep of both major finals, the Champions League and the Europa League.
While spending has increased this summer — up from €4.7 billion last year — it is not as high as the €5.2 billion outlay of 2017/18.
Among the biggest deals this summer have been 19 year old striker Joao Felix moving from Benfica to Athletico Madrid for €126 million, the most expensive deal of the transfer window. Eden Hazard moved to Real Madrid, the former Chelsea talisman switches to La Liga for approximately €100 million.
There has been considerable inflation in the fees paid.
For example, the highest-paid fee for a centre back in the summer of 2013 was for Brazilian Marquinhos. Marquinhos joined Paris Saint Germain from Roma for €31 million. The investment in players has increased almost every transfer window.
England international defender John Stones signed for Manchester City from Everton in 2016 for €55 million.
The highest transfer fee received for a centre back this summer was for the transfer of Leicester defender Harry Maguire to Manchester United for €86 million.