Russian President Vladimir Putin used his speech marking the anniversary of the Second World War's end to warn that Nazi ideologies remain strong.
He said at the annual military parade in Moscow that there were “attempts to rewrite history, to justify traitors and criminals, on whose hands lies the blood of hundreds of thousands of peaceful people.”
He also denounced the return of what he called "Russophobia."
“Unfortunately, many of the ideologies of the Nazis, those who were obsessed with the delusional theory of their exclusiveness, are again trying to be put into service,” Putin said during the parade, which varies little in format from year to year.
It was an opportunity for Russia to display its military technology, with more than 190 military vehicles traversing the square.
They included war-era tanks and intercontinental ballistic missile launchers, as well as fighter jets and helicopters.
“Russia consistently defends international law,” Putin told his audience in Moscow.
“At the same time, we will firmly defend our national interests to ensure the safety of our people.
“The valiant Russian Armed Forces, heirs to the soldiers of victory, are a reliable guarantee for this.”
Relations between the Kremlin and the West have deteriorated in recent years especially over events in Eastern Ukraine.
The anniversary of Nazi Germany's defeat, which Russia calls Victory Day, is the country's most significant secular holiday.
It commemorates the Soviet-era Red Army's military success and the vast suffering of civilians.
About 27 million Soviet soldiers and civilians are estimated to have died in the war.