Wreaths were laid at the infamous Nazi concentration camp of Buchenwald on Sunday, 76 years after its liberation by the allies.
The German President Frank-Walter Steinmeier attended the ceremony, but survivors could not be there due to COVID restrictions.
The president summed up the atrocities committed at Buchenwald and other camps during the Third Reich.
"With its large number of victim groups, Buchenwald represents the entire barbarity of the Nazis' aggressive nationalism on the outside, dictatorship and oppression on the inside, and Völkisch thought," he said. "Buchenwald stands for racial ideology, torture, murder and extermination."
Survivors of Buchenwald and other camps were invited to participate in the ceremony online.
Alex Hacker, who was a prisoner at the Mittelbau-Dora concentration camp, said: "We the survivors are fading away but I hope that this process of remembrance will continue, perhaps with the help of our children and grandchildren. The world needs education and reminders, please, carry on the good work."