Taliban government officials say the explosion was the third recent attack on a Shiite Muslim mosque during Friday prayers.
An explosion at a mosque in eastern Afghanistan has left several casualties, a Taliban provincial spokesperson has said.
At least three people have been killed and 15 others injured, according to witnesses and regional government officials.
The blast went off during Friday prayers in the town of Traili in Nangarhar Province, where Islamic militants have been waging a campaign of violence.
Qari Hanif, the government spokesman for Nangarhar Province, said that a bomb appeared to have been planted inside the mosque. Images on social media showed the building's interior strewn with rubble and broken glass.
If confirmed, it would be the third major Shiite Muslim mosque bombing in five weeks in Afghanistan, following deadly blasts in the cities of Kunduz and Kandahar during Friday prayers.
There was no immediate claim of responsibility for the latest explosion in Traili, on the outskirts of Jalalabad.
Militants from the so-called Islamic State group have been carrying out nearly daily shootings and bombings against Taliban fighters in Nangarhar Province.
Since coming to power in Afghanistan three months ago, the Taliban have been waging a counterinsurgency campaign against rival militant groups.
A recent attack at a military hospital in the capital Kabul killed at least 19 people, including a senior Taliban official, and injured 50 others.