An estimated 40,000 people held a rally in central Barcelona on Sunday expressing their opposition to Catalonia becoming an independent state.
Many called for regional President Artur Mas to resign. He has set November 9 as the date for an independence referendum in defiance of the Madrid government which says it is illegal.
Prime Minister Mariano Rajoy also reached out to Catalans on Spain’s National Day, writing an open letter saying his government wanted to build bridges with the region.
Spain’s Constitutional Court has ordered the referendum suspended while it studies its legality.
Sunday’s demonstration was the latest in a series of rallies organised by both sides of the independence issue.