The largest post-Soviet era Russian naval exercises have begun in the Black Sea.
The manoeuvres, due to last until January 29, will involve warships as well as the army and air force.
The aim is to assess the readiness of the military administration and inter-fleet group of forces to carry out tasks in the far sea zone.
Russian sailors will complete more than 60 exercises in the Black and Mediterranean Seas, including missile and artillery fire.
Some have noted that the manoeuvres have a number of features associated with the situation on the borders of its allies, as well as that in the Middle-East and Africa.