In Spain the National Day has seen some scuffles in Barcelona between protesters for and against Catalan independence.
About a hundred separatist demonstrators reportedly insulted people taking part in another rally in favour of Spanish unity.
At least one pro-independence protester was injured and another arrested.
Recent weeks have seen a push for more Catalan autonomy. Last month there was a huge rally in Barcelona. The regional government has called a snap election for next month and wants a referendum on Catalonia’s future.
The region was absent from the National Day celebrations in Madrid.
King Juan Carlos and his family were applauded by the public despite a series of royal scandals.
The prime minister, marking his first National Day in power, at least was not booed, unlike his predecessor last year.
The event was less elaborate than usual. Austerity ruled as the parade featured no tanks, no flypast.
As Spain goes through an angst-ridden economic and identity crisis, the Defence Minister Pedro Morenes appealed for solidarity – arguing Spaniards were far stronger united than divided.