There was an emotional farewell for the outgoing, disgraced German president but much of the sentiment was decidedly negative.
Christian Wulff quit the largely ceremonial post last month over a political favours scandal.
Chancellor Angela Merkel, who had handpicked him for the role, was among the dignitaries attending the ceremony at the palace in Berlin. But four living former presidents shunned the event, as did some of those invited.
Many had questioned whether he should be given the traditional send-off for heads of state. Others chose to make their presence felt by trying to disrupt the ceremony. The noisy protest did not drown out the military band, but it could be heard.
Anger against Wulff was recently heightened by his decision to accept an annual pension of 200,000 euros, which he will receive for life despite having served only 20 months in office.