Voting is underway in a presidential ballot in Kazakhstan, a snap election that is being boycotted by the opposition.
President Nursultan Nazarbayev, who has been in power for more than 20 years, is widely expected to be handed another five-year term.
He shrugs off criticism that he has been in office too long, tolerates no dissent and is authoritarian, pointing to economic and political stability.
Observers also say that under his rule no election has been judged free or fair by international monitors.
The ballot was called two years early, leaving the opposition with little time to mobilise a campaign.