The alleged arms dealer Viktor Bout has pleaded not guilty to charges of terrorism and arms trafficking in a US court.
Bout, who is a former Soviet air force officer, was held without bail. If found guilty he faces up to a minimum of 25 years in prison.
Bout’s extradition from Thailand earlier this week has been called illegal by Moscow and is threatening improving ties between the US and Russia.
He had been held in a Thai jail since being arrested in a joint US-Thai sting operation. The 43-year-old faces four counts of conspiracy over arms dealing since the 1990s to dictators and conflict zones in Africa, and the Middle East.
Bout claims the allegations are pure fantasy and he is a legitimate businessman.