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The 2013 Cannes film festival announced the winners of its main awards on Sunday at the end of 12 days of movie premieres on the French Riviera.
Following is a list of winners at the 66th Cannes festival, the world's largest cinema showcase:
» Cannes indirectly has its roots anti-fascism
Filmmakers petitioned the French government to start a rival festival after the Venice Film Festival's top prize was jointly-awarded to a two-part German film called "Olympia", commissioned by Nazi propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels to document Nazi successes at the 1938 Berlin Olympics; and "Luciano Serra, Pilota", made under the supervision of Vittorio Mussolini - the son of Italian dictator Benito Mussolini. The clear favourite to win had been Jean Renoir's "La Grande Illusion".
» It could have been the Biarritz Film Festival
Several locations were considered before the contenders were whittled down to to either Biarritz on the Atlantic coast or Cannes on the Mediterranean. Cannes agreed to stump up the money for a dedicated venue. Though officially the city was chosen because it is a "sunny and enchanting location".
» World War II, the Cannes festival on hold
Troops of Nazi Germany’s Third Reich invaded Poland on September 1, 1939 – the day the festival was due to start. The film event was suspended for the duration of the Second World War, starting up again on September 20, 1946.
» Financial trip-ups and triumphs
After what was regarded as a success in its first year in 1947, the 1948 and 1950 Cannes Film Festivals were cancelled due to a lack of funds. However, 1949 did see building work start on the dedicated venue. The Palais Croisette was completed in 1952 and was the festival's home for 30 years.
» Cannes jumps to Spring
From 1951 onwards the festival was to be held in Spring rather than in September. For the first year in its new slot, the festival dates were April 3-20.
» To tree or not to tree?
Parisian jeweller Suzanne Lazon came up with the idea in 1954 that awards should incorporate a palm leaf because the palm tree is an icon of the city of Cannes. The top prize, known as the Grand Prix, was renamed the Palme d'Or the following year.
» May ’68 and unrest reaches the Croisette
In 1968 France found itself embroiled in the worst social unrest since the war. While barricades were being set up in Paris, the turmoil also reached the Côte d’Azur: students stormed the screening rooms, film-makers took the side of the protesters and members of the jury staged a walk-out. As a result the organisers canned Cannes ’68.
» Only one woman winner
In 1993, New Zealand film-maker Jane Campion received the Palme d’Or for ‘The Piano’. It was the first – and remains the only – time that a woman has been awarded Cannes’ top prize.
Seven film directors have been awarded the Palme d’Or twice::
» A media-fest
In 1966, 700 journalists were given accreditation for the festival. In 2012 there were around 4,000. Cannes is also a window into the media zeitgeist: the first ‘web journalist’ was accredited in 1995. In 2012, there were 426 online-only media journalists covering the festival.
» La « Palme des Palmes »
To celebrate the festival’s 50th anniversary in 1997, a special prize was awarded to Ingmar Bergman. He was chosen for the “Palme des Palmes” (Palm of Palms) for his career’s work. A jury made up entirely of former Palme d’Or winners was assembled to pick the recipient. Ingmar Bergman was not present in person to take the award, which was collected by his daughter Linn.
66th Cannes Film Festival’s jury: