Violence has erupted in a number of Turkish cities as Kurds protest over Ankara’s reluctance to assist Peshmerga fighters in the Syrian border town of Kobani, which is under attack from ISIL militants.
The clashes left 18 people dead across the country as riot police used water canon and tear gas to disperse the demonstrators.
Kurdish anger is directed at government inaction against the threat from ISIL and the banned Kurdistan People’s Party has called for further disruption.
Authorities have accused the protesters of “betraying their country “ and have said they will meet “violence with violence”.
A number of curfews have been imposed in south-eastern Turkey where the majority of Kurds reside.
In Hamburg, Germany, a Kurdish protest against ISIL turned violent after fights broke out between Kurds and radical Muslim groups.
Police say 14 people were injured during the scuffles, which involved knives and knuckle-dusters.
Close to 800,000 Kurds are currently living in Germany.