One person has been killed close to Cairo University as supporters of ousted President Mohammed Mursi clashed with security forces.
The protesters were demonstrating against a court ruling that sentenced more than 500 alleged Muslim Brotherhood supporters to death.
The courts decision marks a tightening of the state’s campaign against the Brotherhood.
The verdict sparked a torrent of international indignation. The US, a major financial backer of Egypt, said it was shocked by the sentences.
Police fired tear gas on the crowds and eight people suffered injuries.
An organisation called Students Against the Coup called for the demonstration.