While celebrations took place in Istanbul, commemorations were being held in Turkey’s capital Ankara to mark Republic Day.
The foundation of Turkey 90 years ago is an occasion on which people often choose different causes to celebrate.
For many, the wreath-laying ceremony at the memorial to Mustafa Kemal Ataturk was a chance to honour those who have laid their lives down for Turkey.
But for others, it was a day of protest against the ruling AK party and its running of the country. Opposition parties have staged several rallies to demonstrate over government policies.
“They (the AK Party government) did not do anything in the name of the Republic. We worked very hard to reach where we are now. Our ancestors had many difficulties to make these days happen. The AK party has taken everything,” said retired teacher Gulizar Saltik as he protested.
Turkish authorities were widely condemned for the violent crackdown on nationwide anti-government protests during the summer, and resentment appears to remain high.