*July 9, 1868. *The Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, addressing the citizenship rights and legal equal protection for African Americans, was adopted three years after the end of the civil war. The Fourteenth amendment includes the citizenship clause, the privileges and immunities clause, the due process clause, and equal protection clause. With the Thirteenth and the Fifteenth Amendments, the Fourteenth Amendment is part of the Reconstruction Amendments, adopted between 1850 and 1870, which were intended to guarantee freedom and civil rights to African Americans. The Fourteenth Amendment was greatly contested, especially by the Southern states which were forced to ratify it in order to regain representation in Congress.
Also on July 9: Argentina declares independence from Spain (1816); the Turkish Constitution is approved in a referendum (1961); Andy Warhol’s “Campbell’s Soup Cans” exhibition opens in Los Angeles (1962); the Homosexual Law Reform Act is passed in New Zealand, legalising homosexuality (1986).
Born on July 9: Ferdinand IV (1654), Edward Heath (1916), Tom Hanks (1956)