Differences over the Syrian conflict are overshadowing talks between EU and Russian leaders.
The scrapping of the EU’s arms embargo on Syria will be on top of the agenda at the two-day summit in Yekaterinburg.
Russia believes it will scupper proposed peace talks in Geneva between the opposition and the Assad regime.
Brussels also opposes a new Russian law that would require European airlines to hand over passenger data to authorities.
It is feared that Russia could use non-compliance as a reason to deny planes from the EU entry into the country or its airspace.