Police say the former president Pervez Musharraf was arrested overnight at his home on the outskirts of Islamabad.
The charges relate to his decision to place several judges under house arrest when he imposed emergency rule on Pakistan in 2007.
The former Army chief governed Pakistan from 1999 to 2008. He returned to the country last month from nearly four years of self-imposed exile to run in next month’s election.
He has been placed under house arrest and been allowed to return home.
His lawyers say they plan to appeal against the arrest order.
Supporters gathered outside his home, but experts say Musharraf commands little public support and these events are unlikely to have much impact at the polls.