Tens of thousands of people have taken part in a protest march in Moscow in response to a new ban on US citizens adopting Russian children.
Moscow pushed through the legislation last month after Washington passed a human rights law blacklisting certain Russian officials.
But the tit-for-tat move has led to a public outcry, with the government accused of making vulnerable children political pawns.
The word “shame” blazes across placards bearing the pictures of President Vladimir Putin and the faces other of politicians who supported the anti-adoption bill.
Pensioner Vladimir explains why he came out in the bitter cold to protest:
“The government does not know what to do. They are playing their final card capitalising on anti-American feelings. And they are playing everything with this card, even children.”
But the government says most Russians are opposed to foreign adoptions. Moscow also argues that the US ban is justified by the deaths of 19 Russian-born children adopted by US parents in the past decade.