The Russian President Vladimir Putin has ratified a new law banning Americans from adopting Russian children.
The new legislation, due to come into force on January 1, is in retaliation for a US measure that blacklists Russians linked to human rights abuses.
The Russian law also bans some American-funded Non-Governmental Organisations and deprives of visas any Americans accused of violating Russian immigrants’ rights.
Putin’s signature follows a unanimous vote in the upper house, the Duma, earlier this week.
There have been reports in Russia of some adopted Russian children mistreated by their new American parents.
Earlier this month the US passed the Magnitsky Act, named after an anti-corruption lawyer who died in a Russian jail.
The adoption law has brought protests inside Russia. The foreign minister and the Ministry of Justice are among those who have expressed reservations.
There are fears that the legislation will penalise children.
Last year, of 3,400 Russian children adopted abroad, 956 went to America.