Thousands of Russian nationalists have taken to the streets of Moscow to mark National Unity Day.
The crowd called for President Vladimir Putin to stand down and launched scathing attacks against ethnic minorities.
Putin himself instituted the holiday in 2005 to replace the Soviet-era celebration of the Bolshevik Revolution.
Civil rights activists say the president is in part to blame for the rise in far-right violence in Russia and the hijacking of the holiday by hardline militants.
Marchers and speakers verbally abused migrants from Russia’s mainly Muslim regions in the south and other parts of the former Soviet Union.
Some protesters made Nazi-type salutes and set off smoke bombs.
Police say 25 people were arrested for wearing swastika armbands.