Striking miners defied a protest ban to gather once again at a South African platinum mine on Monday in an ongoing dispute over pay.
They built barricades to keep the police away, before union leaders convinced them to move to an authorised gathering at a nearby football stadium.
They were set to be briefed on the latest pay offer from British mining firm Lonmin.
Officers moved in on the strikers over the weekend, firing rubber bullets and tear gas to disperse the crowd.
It follows a final South African Labour Court ruling that confirms the strike is “unprotected” — which means the management can fire the protesting miners.
They are asking for their monthly salary to be more than doubled to 12,500 rand (1,200 euros).
They are also angry at how police have treated them.
One month ago, officers killed 34 striking miners in the most deadly action taken by security forces since the end of apartheid.