A Russian MP who turned against President Putin has been voted out of the lower house of parliament, the Duma.
Gennady Gudkov was expelled by 291 votes to 150.
Gudkov became a central figure in Russia’s opposition particularly after elections last year that were suspected of being manipulated.
He likened his expulsion to a Stalin show-trial.
Gudkov’s supporters said it showed Putin is determined to crush dissent.