Vladimir Putin replaced Dmitry Medvedev as president on Monday.
He ceded power to his former prime minister in 2008 after completing his two consecutive terms as head of state.
The former KGB spy has served as premier over the past four years.
Now, he has asked parliament to return Medevev to his old post.
The 46-year-old’s re-appointment on Tuesday is a near-certainty because Putin’s United Russia party hold 52 per cent of seats.
International observers criticised December’s parliamentary elections for numerous irregularities.
They sparked protests from opposition groups, who said they were rigged in Putin’s favour.
A similar protest was held outside the Kremlin during Putin’s swearing-in ceremony on Monday.
Moscow police detained 300 people for demonstrating without permission from authorities.
On Sunday, officers arrested another 400 people following an anti-Putin rally in the Russian capital.