Germany’s cabinet has adopted plans to establish a national database of active neo-Nazis.
The move was prompted by the discovery of 10 killings in the eastern city of Jena.
Self-styled fascists shot dead nine immigrants and one police officer over a 10-year period.
Only neo-Nazis who have committed violent crimes will be included. Those who express fascist views will not feature.
German Justice Minister Sabine Leutheusser-Schnarrenberger said this was the first step in tackling the far-right.
She called for a full investigation into the killings and a national debate on crime and security.
There is no national body to track the far-right movement and Germany’s 16 states have separate police forces.
While the register will not restrict freedom of speech, it is a crime under German law to praise the Nazi dictatorship of Adolf Hitler.
This month, a British publisher plans to release excerpts of Hitler’s autobiography Mein Kampf.
The book is not banned in Germany but the southern state of Bavaria owns the copyright and has repeatedly blocked its publication.