Malam Bacai Sanha, the president of Guinea-Bissau, has died in Paris after a short illness, media reports said on Monday.
The 64-year-old travelled to France to seek medical treatment in November.
The exact nature of his condition was never made public.
Sanha, an ex-provincial governor, was elected as head of state of the former Portuguese colony in 2009 after the assassination of his predecessor Joao Bernardo Vieira.
The leader of the tiny West African nation was known to suffer from diabetes and made frequent hospital visits abroad.
His aides always described those trips as routine check-ups.