Thirty seven current and former Boeing workers have been charged with selling or trying to buy prescription painkillers and anti-anxiety drugs.
They were arrested after federal agents raided a plant in Philadelphia where military aircraft are made.
Officials say a probe was launched after complaints from Boeing workers.
Prosecutor Zane David Memeger said: “This investigation and prosecution focused not only on the sellers, but also on the users because of the critical role that these employees play in manufacturing military aircraft.”
Boeing employs more than 6,000 people at the Ridley Park factory in Philadelphia, where the V-22 Osprey vertical take-off aircraft and H-47 Chinook helicopters are produced.