Norway is holding a national day of remembrance for the victims of last month’s massacre.
The prime minister, the country’s royal family and several Scandinavian heads of government laid flowers outside Oslo cathedral, ahead of a special ceremony and concert.
Anders Behring Breivik has admitted killing 77 people in his bombing and shooting spree, but denies criminal responsibility.
A month on from Norway’s worst attacks since World War II, it is hoped Sunday’s events will be a significant step for people who will long have to deal with the tragedy.
One father voiced his feelings outside the cathedral.
“It is important because my daughter was on Utoeya and she survived, fortunately. Because of her and because of the occasion, it is important to make a kind of end of the first run,” said Are Johnson.
Adrian Pracon, a 21-year-old who was shot by Breivik but survived, said it was good to have a national memorial. But, he added: “It will never be really final because we will be reminded of what happened every day, every year.”