On the 50th anniversary of the building of the Berlin Wall, the city has paid tribute to those who died trying to cross it.
The barrier, and the bloodshed associated with it, still trigger painful memories.
Berlin remained divided for nearly 30 years, after the former Communist East closed the border.
Jorg Klein escaped in 1964 through a tunnel. Looking back, he said: “Visitors simply could not understand that we were completely surrounded by concrete, by the Wall.”
At least 136 people were killed trying to get across it. Most were shot by East German border guards.
In their memory, a minute’s silence was observed at noon.
Chancellor Angela Merkel, herself, grew up in the East.
The barrier was toppled in 1989. Berlin’s Mayor Klaus Wowereit said: ‘The wall is history but we must not forget it.’